[Update] Jet Lag: Symptoms: Causes, and How to Cope | jetleg – Sonduongpaper

jetleg: คุณกำลังดูกระทู้

Long-distance plane travel is infamous for being inconvenient and uncomfortable. Due to the logistics of check-in, the stress of security lines, and hours being stuck in a confined space, many people find extended plane trips to be seriously taxing.

Jet lag frequently contributes to the physical burden of long flights. Jet lag refers to the misalignment of your body’s internal clock with the local time at your destination. This phenomenon often occurs when flying across three or more time zones.

Jet lag can throw off your sleep and cause other bothersome symptoms that persist for days or even weeks after a flight. Whether you’re traveling for business or pleasure, jet lag can negatively impact your trip.

For travelers, knowing about jet lag — including its symptoms, causes, and ways of reducing them — can make long-distance trips more pleasant and less disruptive to sleep and overall health.

What Is Jet Lag?

Jet lag is a circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder that occurs when your 24-hour internal clock, known as your circadian rhythm, does not match the local day-night cycle.

Under normal circumstances, a person’s circadian rhythm aligns with daylight, promoting alertness during the day and sleep at night. This internal clock synchronizes with the 24-hour day to promote quality sleep as well as physical and mental health. A person’s geographic location affects their circadian rhythm since sunrise and sunset occur at different times in different locations.

Jet leg generally happens when a person travels east or west across three or more time zones. For example, if you fly from Los Angeles to New York and arrive at 8 p.m., your body might still operate as if it’s in L.A. at 5 p.m. This jet lag can cause you to stay up later than you’d like, sleep at odd hours, or feel more tired than usual, among other symptoms.

What Are the Symptoms of Jet Lag?

The most common symptoms of jet lag include:

  • Sleeping problems: It may be hard to fall asleep when you want to, or you may wake up earlier than planned. Jet lag can also cause sleep to be fragmented.
  • Daytime sleepiness: Jet lag frequently causes you to feel drowsy or tired during the day.
  • Impaired thinking: You may experience problems with attention or memory or simply feel like your thinking is slowed.
  • Hampered physical function: Your body may feel tired, and peak physical performance may be affected, which is especially notable for traveling athletes.
  • Emotional difficulties: Some people with jet lag feel irritable, and evidence indicates that jet lag can exacerbate mental health problems, such as mood disorders.
  • General malaise: Jet lag may make you feel malaise, which is a general feeling of discomfort, illness, or uneasiness
  • Stomach problems: Jet lag can induce gastrointestinal problems like reduced appetite, nausea, or even constipation and irritable bowel syndrome.
  • Sleep paralysis and seizures: In rare circumstances, jet lag may impact sleep architecture which may increase the risk of sleep paralysis and nighttime seizures.

These symptoms arise after long flights to different time zones because the disruption to your circadian rhythm impacts how and when your body produces hormones  that affect sleep and other bodily processes.

People with jet lag experience one or more of the symptoms listed above. Symptoms can begin immediately or set in a few days after arrival. Many people sleep well the first night after a flight only to encounter sleep problems in the following days.

Jet lag lasts anywhere from a few days to a few weeks. In general, symptoms persist for 1-1.5 days per time zone crossed, but the duration of symptoms varies depending on the person and their trip details.

Can Jet Lag Have Long-Term Consequences?

Jet lag is usually a short-term problem that goes away once the body’s circadian rhythm has adjusted to the local time. For people who frequently take long-distance flights, such as pilots, flight attendants, and business travelers, jet lag can become a chronic problem.

A chronically out-of-sync circadian rhythm can create persistent sleep problems that may give rise to insomnia. A healthy internal clock is important for the overall health of the body, therefore chronic circadian rhythm disruption may raise the risk of disorders like diabetes and depression as well as some types of cancer.

What Causes Jet Lag?

lane travel that crosses three or more time zones causes jet lag. Symptoms may be more pronounced as more time zones are crossed.

Most people find that jet lag is worse when traveling east than it is when traveling west. Jet lag differs based on the direction of travel because it’s generally easier to delay your internal clock than advance it. Jet lag does not occur on north-south flights that do not cross multiple time zones.

Not everyone who takes a long-distance flight gets jet lag. Multiple factors influence the likelihood and severity of jet lag:

  • Trip details: The total distance, amount of layovers, time zones crossed, direction of travel, local daylight hours, length of time at the destination, and other specifics of a trip can affect jet lag.
  • Arrival time: When you arrive at your destination may affect your circadian rhythm. For eastward travel, some evidence indicates that jet lag is reduced with afternoon arrivals compared to those in the early morning.
  • Age: A person’s age may play a role in jet lag, although studies have found mixed results. People over 60 experience circadian changes that can make it harder for them to recover from jet lag, but some research in pilots found jet lag to be worse in younger people.
  • Sleep before travel: Poor sleep in the days leading up to a flight can increase a person’s propensity for jet lag after traveling.
  • Stress: Being stressed-out can keep the mind and body on-edge in ways that interfere with sleep and make it harder to cope with jet lag.
  • Use of alcohol and caffeine: Many people drink alcohol and coffee during flights, and these substances affect the brain in ways that can disrupt sleep.
  • Past history of jet lag: People who have previously had jet lag are prone to have it again.
  • Individual variation: For reasons that aren’t fully understood, some people are more likely to experience circadian rhythm disruption with long-distance flights than others.
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Because there are many factors involved, it is hard to know exactly who will develop jet lag, how severe it will be, and how long it will last. However, it is common for at least mild jet lag to occur when more than three time zones are crossed during flight.

How is Jet Lag Different From Travel Fatigue?

It’s normal to feel wiped out after you’ve had a long travel day. While this can be confused with jet lag, it’s often a result of travel fatigue. Travel fatigue includes symptoms like tiredness and headaches that can arise because of the physical toils of travel.

Airplane cabins, which have cool, dry, low-pressure air, can cause dehydration and susceptibility to respiratory problems. Air pressure changes can lead to bloating, and long-term sitting can cause leg swelling. It’s often difficult to sleep upright in an airplane seat, especially with in-flight interruptions, so getting quality rest in transit can be challenging.

All of these factors contribute to feeling exhausted after a long flight; however, this is distinct from jet lag.

Unlike jet lag, travel fatigue does not involve circadian rhythm disruption. For that reason, while travel fatigue usually goes away after a good night’s sleep, jet lag can persist for days or weeks until a person’s internal clock becomes realigned.

It is possible to have both travel fatigue and jet lag after a long-haul flight, but jet lag is far more likely to cause lasting and extensive symptoms.

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    How Can You Prevent or Reduce Jet Lag?

    Jet lag can have ruinous effects on a vacation, business trip, or athletic competition. As a result, travelers of all kinds strive to minimize the effects of jet lag.

    The key to preventing and reducing jet lag is quickly realigning your circadian rhythm to synchronize with the time zone of your destination. Until this is achieved, steps can be taken to manage symptoms.

    For very short trips, you may be able to avoid jet lag by scheduled activities, including sleep, to keep your circadian rhythm aligned with your home time zone. In this way, you avoid circadian disruption both during the trip and after you’ve returned home.

    For travel lasting more than a few days, minimizing jet lag requires acclimating to the day-night cycle at your destination. The following sections address methods of reorienting your circadian rhythm and practical tips for reducing jet lag.

    Light Exposure

    Light is the most powerful influence on circadian rhythm, and strategic light exposure may help adjust your internal clock to avoid or reduce jet lag.

    The effect on circadian rhythm depends on the level and timing of light exposure. Sunlight has the highest level of illumination and the strongest circadian effects. Different types of artificial light can also influence circadian timing to a lesser degree.

    Indiscriminate light exposure doesn’t resolve jet lag because the timing is critical. At certain times, light exposure can either advance or delay your internal clock.

    Properly timed periods of both daylight and darkness can help sync your circadian rhythm with local time. When access to natural light is limited, light therapy lamps, also known as lightboxes, can deliver bright light exposure with greater circadian influence.

    Melatonin and Sleep Aids

    Melatonin is a hormone that the body produces that helps to both make you feel sleepy and govern your circadian rhythm. Melatonin is normally produced in the evening, a few hours before bedtime, but this schedule can get thrown off by jet lag.

    There are both prescription medications and dietary supplements that boost the body’s levels of melatonin, and some research suggests melatonin can reduce jet lag.

    Other types of sleeping pills, including prescription and over-the-counter drugs and natural sleep aids, may help you fall asleep or stay asleep, but they do not work to change your circadian rhythm. In some cases, they may even mask an ongoing case of jet lag.

    Sleep aids can have side effects, including a heightened risk of falls and accidents if they increase drowsiness. Before taking melatonin or any other sleep medication, it’s best to consult with a doctor, ideally prior to your trip, to discuss the benefits and risks pertaining to your specific situation.

    Pre-Adjusting Your Internal Clock

    Some methods of preventing jet lag are based on modifying your sleep schedule in the days leading up to your trip so that when you arrive at your destination there is less of a discrepancy between your circadian rhythm and the local time.

    In addition to changing your bedtime, this approach often involves carefully timed melatonin and light exposure to proactively alter your circadian rhythm.

    While this approach may be beneficial in some cases, it may not be practical depending on your daily schedule, and professional, family, and social obligations.

    Creating a Plan for Overcoming Jet Lag

    The optimal plan to avoid jet lag depends on many factors including the direction of your flight, the number of time zones crossed, how long you will remain at your destination, and your schedule and obligations during your trip.

    Taking these factors into account, you can create a personalized plan to reduce jet lag. Light and melatonin together can help you realign your circadian rhythm, but without proper timing, they can exacerbate rather than reduce jet lag.

    A doctor, travel nurse, or sleep specialist may be available to help you prepare a plan for managing jet lag. Several online resources and apps can help you generate tailored schedules to help reduce jet lag based on your trip detaails.

    Practical Tips for Reducing Jet Lag

    A number of practical tips  for before, during, and after your flight can help reduce sleep disruptions and travel fatigue so that you make the most of your trip.

    Before Traveling

    • Schedule the first days of your trip: Make sure to give yourself time to sleep and follow your plan for light exposure. Build buffers into your schedule just in case you feel sluggish, and if possible, try to arrive days in advance of an important meeting or event so that you have time to acclimate.
    • Minimize travel stress: Don’t wait until the last minute to pack or leave for the airport. Being in a rush can heighten stress and make your travels more difficult.
    • Get quality sleep: Focus on getting quality rest for at least a few nights before your trip so that you’re not already sleep-deprived at the beginning of the trip.

    During Flight

    • Stay hydrated: Drink water to replenish fluids and counteract the dehydration that can occur in-flight.
    • Limit alcohol and caffeine: Reduce alcohol and caffeine intake on-board or skip them entirely.
    • Eat smart: Reduce the risk of digestive problems by eating healthy and light. Opt for fruits and vegetables over heavy, calorie-rich, fatty snacks.
    • Stand up and move: Blood clots and stiffness can occur if you are seated for too long. Walking, standing, and gently stretching a few times during the flight may reduce these risks.
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    After Arrival

    • Exercise: Find time for a walk or other light physical activity. Exercising outside to receive appropriately timed daylight exposure will help recalibrate your circadian rhythm.
    • Limit alcohol, caffeine, and heavy meals: Avoid excessive caffeine, alcohol, or heavy and calorie-rich meals.
    • Nap with caution: Avoid the temptation to take an extra long nap. Try to keep naps less than 30 minutes and only nap eight or more hours before your planned bedtime.
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    [Update] Jet lag: Sintomi, Trattamenti e Prevenzione | jetleg – Sonduongpaper


    Il Jet lag è un disturbo del ritmo circadiano che si verifica quando l’orologio biologico del corpo perde la sincronia con l’orario ed il ciclo luce/buio sui quali è regolato. Questo fenomeno è comune quando si viaggia con l’aereo, attraversando diversi fusi orari.

    Il Jet lag è una sindrome complessa in cui intervengono molte variabili (biologiche, ambientali, climatiche…). La principale causa, che ne determina la comparsa, consiste nella mancanza di sincronizzazione tra i ritmi circadiani, cui l’organismo è abituato, e le nuove alternanze di luce e buio tipiche della località di destinazione.


    Per approfondire: Sintomi Jet lag

    La disorganizzazione dell’orologio biologico interno (che regola anche l’alternanza sonno-veglia) rispetto ai nuovi periodi luce/buio, determina una serie di disturbi che, nel loro insieme, vengono denominati “sindrome da fuso orario”.

    Se il viaggio determina l’attraversamento di almeno due fusi orari, i primi sintomi del Jet lag esordiscono, di solito, entro uno o due giorni dalla partenza. I principali sintomi del Jet lag possono essere:

    • astenia diurna (stanchezza ed affaticamento durante il giorno);
    • inappetenza;
    • sensazione di malessere generale: nausea, mal di testa, indolenzimento muscolare;
    • disturbi del sonno, legati ad uno squilibrio nella secrezione di melatonina: sonnolenza eccessiva, insonnia, difficoltà ad addormentarsi;
    • ridotta performance fisica e mentale: difficoltà di concentrazione o a svolgere le normali attività, riduzione o alterazione del tono dell’umore, irritabilità, nervosismo;
    • alterazioni della funzionalità gastro-intestinale: problemi nella digestione, disturbi allo stomaco, costipazione o diarrea.

    Si calcola che, per adattare il ritmo circadiano al nuovo orario, indicativamente ogni giorno si dovrebbero recuperare circa 60 o 90 minuti, rispetto alla variazione di fuso orario:

    • Da ovest a est. L’adeguamento al nuovo fuso orario richiede, in giorni, circa i due terzi del numero di fusi orari attraversati (ore di differenza tra il fuso orario di partenza e quello di arrivo). Esempio: cambiare il proprio fuso orario di 12 ore verso est necessita di 9 giorni di adattamento.
    • Da est a ovest. Il Jet lag porta a disturbi della durata, in giorni, di circa la metà del numero di fusi orari attraversati. Esempio: cambiare il proprio fuso orario di 12 ore verso ovest richiede circa 6 giorni di sincronizzazione biologica.

    Al nostro orologio biologico possono servire alcuni giorni prima che si adatti completamente al nuovo ritmo circadiano. La durata del disturbo può arrivare ad un massimo di 7-10 giorni per i viaggi verso est che comportano l’attraversamento di 8-12 fusi orari.

    Dal momento che i giorni interessati dal Jet lag potrebbero interessare la durata totale del viaggio, anziché attendere che l’organismo si abitui “naturalmente”, è possibile intervenire in anticipo per prevenire il disturbo e predisporsi ai nuovi ritmi circadiani, adottando alcuni accorgimenti comportamentali.

    La stanchezza del viaggio (travel fatigue) e il Jet lag.

    La “travel fatigue” è associata ad una condizione di stanchezza generale, disorientamento e mal di testa, che non interessa necessariamente un’alterazione dei ritmi circadiani. Questa condizione è determinata da un cambiamento nella routine e dal tempo trascorso in uno spazio angusto, con poca possibilità di muoversi durante il viaggio. La stanchezza del viaggio può essere avvertita anche senza attraversare fusi orari ed il recupero è piuttosto breve: sono sufficienti un paio di giorni di riposo ed un’alimentazione equilibrata. Il Jet lag, invece, causa sintomi più persistenti ed il recupero può durare anche una settimana.

    Prevenzione e Trattamento

    Prevenire la comparsa del Jet lag, o almeno ridurne l’intensità, è possibile grazie a qualche semplice accorgimento pratico:

    Prima di partire

    • Regolare il sonno: per abituarsi progressivamente all’orario del luogo di destinazione, mentre si è ancora a casa e nei limiti del possibile, è utile posticipare o anticipare di circa mezz’ora al giorno il momento in cui si va a dormire e in cui ci si alza. E’ comunque importante non ridurre le ore di riposo notturno, per evitare di giungere stanchi a destinazione.
    • Fototerapia: sottoporsi regolarmente a sedute con lampade che simulano artificialmente la luce solare permette di ammortizzare il cambiamento di fuso orario.
    • Adattare gli orari dei pasti: regolare l’orologio sull’orario del Paese di destinazione e modificare il momento dei pasti e del sonno, avvicinandolo leggermente a quello che si prevede di seguire durante il soggiorno: fame e sonno sono strettamente connessi e tendono ad influenzarsi a vicenda.

    Durante il volo

    • Aiutarsi con l’alimentazione: nel giorno della partenza è consigliabile consumare pasti leggeri. Meglio ridurre al minimo il consumo di tè, caffè ed alcolici, prima e durante il volo. Bere molta acqua: l’atmosfera pressurizzata sull’aereo e la disidratazione possono favorire la comparsa di alcuni sintomi del Jet lag (sensazione di malessere generale ed affaticamento). Se una volta a destinazione il problema è l’insonnia, a cena prediligete i carboidrati e gli zuccheri, che agevolano il sonno.
    • Riposare durante il viaggi o: se il viaggio da intraprendere è di lunga durata, è consigliabile cominciare ad adattarsi al nuovo fuso non appena si sale a bordo dell’aereo, cercando di rilassarsi il più possibile durante il volo.

    Una volta arrivati a destinazione

    • Se proprio non riuscite ad affrontare la giornata, quando avete raggiunto la destinazione, fate un breve riposo di 20-30 minuti, ma evitate di dormire per un periodo troppo lungo. Conservate la stanchezza per la sera, così eviterete problemi di insonnia e sarà più facile adattarsi al nuovo ritmo.
    • Evitare l’alcol per indurre il sonno: le bevande alcoliche disturbano il riposo regolare.
    • Non assumere dosi eccessive di bevande contenenti caffeina, anche se utili a compensare la sonnolenza durante la giornata: potrebbero interferire con i momenti di sonno programmati e rendere difficile l’addormentamento, compromettendo la qualità del sonno. Evitare caffè, tè e altre bevande eccitanti nelle sei ore che precedono il riposo notturno.
    • Adattate l’esposizione alla luce solare: l’esposizione alla luce naturale del sole può aiutare a ripristinare i ritmi circadiani, in quanto è uno dei fattori principali che influenzano i cicli biologici dell’organismo:
      • per i viaggi ad ovest, esporsi alla luce solare del tardo pomeriggio;
      • per i viaggi ad est, esporsi alla luce solare del mattino.

    Durante il giorno, per schermare la luce, è possibile ricorrere ad occhiali da sole, mentre di notte è possibile chiudere completamente le tende per oscurare la stanza e garantire un ottimo riposo notturno.

    Jet lag: soluzioni per il trattamento

    Il Jet lag non rende necessaria una specifica terapia. Tuttavia, nel caso i viaggi aerei siano frequenti e il cambio di fuso orario venga avvertito come un disturbo limitante, è possibile consultare un medico per la prescrizione di una terapia farmacologica o un trattamento fototerapico.

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    Per quanto riguarda il trattamento farmacologico, possono essere prescritti alcuni farmaci per migliorare la qualità e la durata del sonno durante il volo e nelle notti successive. Questi farmaci, probabilmente, non diminuiranno i sintomi diurni del Jet lag, ma sono utili in caso di soggetti particolarmente sensibili al cambiamento di fuso orario e che presentano particolare difficoltà a conciliare il riposo notturno.
    La terapia farmacologica può prevedere la prescrizione medica di:

    • Farmaci non benzodiazepinici, come lo zolpidem, l’eszopiclone e lo zaleplon.
    • Benzodiazepine (ad emivita molto breve in dosaggi non elevati), come il triazolam.

    Per approfondire: Farmaci per la cura del Jet Lag »


    I ritmi circadiani sono influenzati dall’esposizione alla luce del sole. Quando si attraversano diversi meridiani, l’organismo deve adattarsi ai nuovi orari e sincronizzare il proprio ciclo biologico interno, per rispondere correttamente al ritmo sonno-veglia. La fototerapia può essere utile per rendere meno brusca questa transizione. La tecnica utilizza la luce a scopo terapeutico e si basa sul principio della reimpostazione dei ritmi circadiani attraverso l’esposizione protratta e ripetuta a fonti luminose, naturali o più comunemente artificiali. Durante la seduta di fototerapia il soggetto è posto in prossimità di una lampada che simula la luce solare per un tempo prestabilito. Questo dispositivo emana luce artificiale simulando l’illuminazione naturale esterna, allo scopo di stimolare i mediatori biologici che agiscono sul cervello, con effetto positivo sull’umore e sulla regolazione dei ritmi circadiani.


    La melatonina, assunta in modo calibrato, è un rimedio che facilita l’adattamento al nuovo fuso orario, aiutando il corpo ad abituarsi al nuovo ritmo buio-luce, sincronizzando il ciclo sonno-veglia. L’assunzione regolare di melatonina consente di attenuare in modo significativo il fenomeno del Jet lag, anche se alcuni studi scientifici hanno sollevato dubbi sulla sua concreta efficacia. Il rimedio è indicato nei viaggi lunghi con passaggio attraverso 5 o più fusi orari e soprattutto nei viaggi verso est. La melatonina andrebbe assunta nell’orario prossimo al momento del riposo notturno relativo al Paese di destinazione, e per tutta la durata dei giorni di permanenza.

    Il medico indicherà, in base alle esigenze personali, quantità e modalità di assunzione.

    Altri Integratori e Rimedi naturali

    Estratti di piante ipnotichesedative, come la Valeriana, la Passiflora e la Camomilla, possono essere utili per “distendere i nervi“, favorendo il rilassamento ed il sonno. La
    fosfatidilserina, un fosfolipide naturale, è invece in grado di abbassare i livelli di cortisolo, l’ormone dello stress i cui livelli tendono ad elevarsi nei soggetti affetti da jet lag.

    Capítol 1 – Conyac – Jet lag

    Jet lag Capítol 1
    La Mariona arriba de Madrid per sorpresa, a casa de l’Esther, la seva germana. Mentrestant, l’Esther està molesta perquè el seu ex no li truca per felicitarli l’aniversari. La Carla té ressaca i ha perdut la memòria. Ahir va sortir, però amb qui? I què va fer? Sort que la Diana, la veïna, les aconsella. Finalment, la Mariona pren una decisió radical.
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    นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูเพิ่มเติม

    Capítol 1 - Conyac - Jet lag

    Simple Plan Feat. KOTAK – Jet Lag (Official Video)

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    The Science of Jet Lag… And How To Prevent It

    What is jet lag? Can we cure it? And why is it a big problem for astronauts going to Mars? Kate dives into the science of circadian rhythms, and armed with the facts, sets out to find a cure.
    Subscribe for more science videos: http://bit.ly/RiSubscRibe
    The term ‘jet lag’ flew into the dictionary in 1966, courtesy of Horace Sutton. It describes the physiological strain that long distance air travel can put on your body. Internal rhythms, governed by regular molecular processes known as circadian clocks, keep our bodily functions in a consistent 24 hour pattern. Although these rhythms can keep time on their own, they are amenable to external inputs, such as light. When you fly across the world and plunge your body into a new time zone, the rhythms that have over time lined up with your daily life are thrown out of synch.
    The result? Your whole body feels the strain as your clocks try to wind themselves back into the right time. But once you understand how changes in light levels can trigger the internal processes at the root of jet lag, you can try this simple trick to try to stave it off.
    This film is part of our new series that will provide the blueprint for a scientifically perfect summer. From sweating to hay fever, insects to jet lag, Kate Mulcahy will help you hack summer to engineer the perfect season. Taking a different topic each Thursday, the videos will gradually build up an equation for summer perfection; a summer survival guide certified by science.
    Subscribe to keep up each week: http://bit.ly/RiSubscRibe
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    The Science of Jet Lag... And How To Prevent It

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    • Vietsub bởi Cinderella Subteam
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    Hic đúng ra bài này sẽ được lên sóng lúc 11h gì đó rồi, nhưng vì sự ngu ngục của mình nên mình còn sót lỗi typo với quên ghi credit. Thế là mình đi sửa rồi enc lại, xong lúc enc thì ngu ngục lần 2 khi quên chỉnh thông số nên ra một quả video 3.9GB 😀 Nhưng ngu ngục lần 3 là khi mình không hề biết về sự khổng lồ của nó, mình vẫn up lên Youtube bình thường và mình ngồi chờ hơn 1h để nó load được 20% thì mình mới nhận ra 😀 Mong là up lần này không bị lỗi gì nữa chứ không chắc mình đâm đầu xuống đất 😀
    Anw, lúc trans bài này trong đầu mình chỉ có duy nhất một couple thôi ấy =))))) Mà thấy cũng hợp với họ thiệt 🌚🌚
    • Yêu cầu bài hát: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSf5C8Qv3FtP95xhwDyvNho_r5g7rDVWW4aMvpeyhpA9BLppdQ/viewform
    • Hãy tôn trọng công sức của chúng mình, vui lòng không reup nếu không có link dẫn và sự cho phép!
    • Cre ảnh/Artist/Link: Unsplash
    • Eff: Kirena Jang

    [Vietsub] Jet Lag (시차적응) - EXO-SC (세훈\u0026찬열)

    นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูบทความเพิ่มเติมในหมวดหมู่Wiki

    ขอบคุณมากสำหรับการดูหัวข้อโพสต์ jetleg

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